Metaphor and simile are two of the best known
            tropes and are often mentioned together as examples of
            rhetorical figures. Metaphor and simile are both terms
            that describe a comparison; the only syntactic
(5)       difference between a metaphor and a simile is that a
            simile makes the comparison explicit by using “like” or
            “as.” The typical linguistic textbook differentiates the
            two by explaining that a simile states that A is like B,
            while a metaphor states that A is B or substitutes B for
(10)     A. According to this definition, then, “You are my
            sunshine” is a metaphor whereas “Your eyes are like
            the sun” is a simile. However, some thinkers, including
            Joseph Kelly, describe simile as a mere subset of
            metaphor; in this case, metaphor is the umbrella term
(15)     for comparing the disparate, and simile simply denotes
            the figure in which one makes the comparison literal.
            Metaphors can also be simple or submerged
            comparisons, depending on the complexity of usage.
                  Usually, the two devices can be surrogates for one
(20)     another. For example, remove the operator from
            William Shakespeare’s famous quote, “Death lies on
            her, like an untimely frost,” and it becomes “Death lies
            on her, an untimely frost,” which parallels the former
            quite well.
(25)           Despite the similarity of the two figures, the
            distinction between them is often the focus when the
            terms are introduced to students. “Not knowing the
            difference between a simile and a metaphor” is
            sometimes used by those considering themselves well-
(30)     read as a euphemism to chastise students for knowing
            little about rhetoric or literature, and many lists of
            literary terms define metaphor as “a comparison not
            using like or as,” showing the emphasis often put on
            this distinction.
(35)           Although in practice their use is often synonymous,
            in a rigorous sense, their meanings can be understood
            to be quite different. Whereas simile explicitly
            describes a comparison, metaphor asserts an identity.
            A simile always expresses something trivially true,
(40)     whereas a metaphor always expresses something
            patently false. In other words, one could argue that
            when listening to an active metaphor, the listener
            always visualizes something false before analyzing the
            phrase metaphorically. There are cases where the use
(45)     of a simile rather than a metaphor makes a clear
            difference in meaning or listener expectation. “He had
            a posture like a question mark” has only one
            interpretation, that the shape of the posture is that of a
            question mark, whereas “His posture was a question
(50)     mark” has at least one alternative interpretation, that
            the reason for or the nature of the posture is in
                  In practice, overused and historically outdated
            metaphors can wear away into dead metaphors, such as
(55)     “looking a gift horse in the mouth,” which uses equine
            imagery not correlated with the daily lives of most of
            those who use the phrase. Metaphors “die” as listeners
            come to learn metaphorical meanings by rote rather
            than envisioning or making sense of seemingly
(60)     nonsensical assertions.

Question #0002

Which one of the following can be most reasonably
inferred from the information in the passage?

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